# Annotations

XML provides for built-in extensibility and client programs can use as much or as little information as needed. For the actual mapping of a domain ontology to a XML-based format, however, clients and producers have to agree on the terms used. What has been described in the above sections is a minimal form of such a mapping, containing the basic concepts and functions needed. The extension of the format with new fixed-meaning elements and attributes would involve an updated schema and re-coding of parsers and other programs. A more light-weight solution to the extensibility issue is provided by the use of annotations, which have the morphology of XML empty elements (containing only attributes) but can appear in various places and contain arbitrary key-value pairs. Annotations provide immediate information to human readers of the PSML files, and can be exploited informally by client programs to extract additional information. For the latter use, it is clear that some degree of permanence and agreed meaning should be given to annotations, but this task falls not on some central authority, but on specific codes.

As an example, the following snippet of a PSML file shows an annotation in the pseudo-atom-spec element:

<pseudo-atom-spec atomic-label="La" atomic-number="57" z-pseudo="11"
flavor="Hamann&apos;s oncvpsp" relativity="scalar" spin-dft="no"
core-corrections="no">
<annotation pseudo-energy="-31.7585823482" cutoff_hint_low="38"
cutoff_hint_normal="39" cutoff_hint_high="47" />
<exchange-correlation>
<annotation oncvpsp-xc-code="3"
oncvpsp-xc-type="LDA -- Ceperley-Alder Perdew-Zunger" />
<libxc-info number-of-functionals="2">
<functional name="Slater exchange (LDA)" type="exchange" id="1" />
<functional name="Perdew &amp; Zunger (LDA)" type="correlation" id="9" />
</libxc-info>
</exchange-correlation>
<valence-configuration total-valence-charge="11">
<shell n="5" l="s" occupation="2" />
<shell n="5" l="p" occupation="6" />
<shell n="5" l="d" occupation="2" />
<shell n="6" l="s" occupation="1" />
</valence-configuration>
</pseudo-atom-spec>


Plane-wave codes might want to exploit the energy cutoff hints given in the annotation, perhaps using a plugin routine that identifies the generator program and its version and extracts the hints in the appropriate manner. These plugin routines might be stored (and properly maintained) in a repository to which both the owners of the generator programs and the owners of the client programs can contribute. Some chosen plugins might also be distributed with the libPSML library itself, to serve as examples and templates.

Annotations are currently allowed within the following elements:

• provenance
• pseudo-atom-spec
• exchange-correlation
• valence-configuration
• core-configuration
• semilocal-potentials
• local-potential
• nonlocal-projectors
• pseudo-wave-functions
• valence-charge
• core-charge
• grid

Top-level annotations are not allowed. They properly belong in the provenance elements.